Estudios Latinoamericanos <p>Estudios Latinoamericanos, issued by the Polish Association of Latin American Studies, is the oldest Polish scientific journal publishing material related to the wider history and culture of Latin America. Distributed from 1972 to 1995, it was issued by the Institute of History (PAN).</p> en-US <p>Copyright by PTSL © 2021. With all rights reserved unless otherwise noted. The Journal supports Open Access principles and practices in which research outputs are distributed online, free of cost or other access barriers. Creative Commons open access licenses are applied wherever possible. Creative Commons licensing is mandatory for future submissions.</p> (Mariusz Ziółkowski) (Michal Gilewski) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 Introduction to the volume <p>Introduction to volume 39.</p> Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Andrzej Krzanowski, Cuadrangulo de Pasamayo, Peru 2012. Fot. K. Tunia <p>no abstract</p> Krzysztof Tunia Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Andrzej Krzanowski's role on the development of the Andean studies in Poland <p>Andrzej Krzanowski's role on the development of the Andean studies in Poland</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Currently editorial notes are not available online.</strong></p> Mariusz Ziółkowski, Krzysztof Tunia, Aleksander Posern-Zieliński Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Trabajos publicados por el Dr. Hab. Andrzej Krzanowski <p>Prepared by Andrzej Krzanowski, with revised by Krzysztof Tunia</p> Andrzej Krzanowski, Krzysztof Tunia Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN THE HILL WITH CONCENTRIC WALLS OF CERRO COLORADO, HUAURA VALLEY, PERU <p>This article presents the results of the studies that included excavations carried out in sector A of the Cerro Colorado in the Huaura Valley. Th is sector corresponds to a hill with concentric walls, and has been described by various scholars in recent years. Nevertheless, it is the first time that intensive research has been carried out that allows us to know in greater detail about the conformant architecture and its functionality. Th e results of the investigations revealed the fi nding of ritual and domestic materials and contexts, and it is proposed that this site fulfi lled a ritual function, related to the cult of the sea (Mama-cocha and Urpiwachak).</p> Pieter D. van Dalen Luna Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 COMPLEX PRE-CERAMIC ARCHITECTURE AND ART IN TRANSITION TO CHAVÍN <p>The study of the archaeology and the art of Galgada brings great fondness towards the ancient cultures of Peru, because it presents rich and vivid cultural features, manifested both in the greatly monumental and technologically complex architectural concepts, and in the aff ects and emotion that appear to be embodied here in the particular archaeological material - the famous enclosures with trapezoidal parietal niches, the benches running in the lower segments of the internal walls, the “metaphorical” hearths in the centre of the fl oors of the temples, which designate the presence of a sacred, calm and tranquil dimension that is clearly delineated from the mundane.</p> <p>In addition, the article provides the reader with an introduction to the pre-Chavín art of Galgada that has been captured in painted textiles, carved bones, fi nely polished shellfi sh shells, sculpted stones, fi gurative and geometric petroglyphs, all of which present various graphic ideas and expressions in relation to their meanings.<br>In this sense, the symbolism presents a transformation of simple artistic traditions into complex visual systems, and represents confrontation between categories of graphic ideas that correlate to the ancient perceptions of the natural world and the world of diff erent, abstract graphic ideas, which can be seen as a form of graphic text and as predecessors to the symbolic, metaphorical and greatly conventionalized styles of art of the subsequent Chavin period.</p> Alberto Bueno Mendozo Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 ARCHAEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES OF CERRO HUALLÍO, CACHICADÁN, NORTHERN HIGHLANDS OF PERU <p>It is sought to disseminate to know and understand part of the historical importance on a set of existing and visible archaeological remains at the surface level of the Huallío and Chiragbal hills, the latter considered as one of the pre-Hispanic sanctuaries of greater magnitude and cultural significance in the mountains North of the central Andes. h e remains consist of caves, tombs, mausoleums and niches or “windows” carved into rocks and rocky outcrops; quarries, huancas, ceremonial platforms, housing units, roads and ditches, grouped in the category of structures, dispersed in an area of approximately 57 hectares, which could be called the cultural area of the archaeological complex of Huallío. The work is the product of direct observation, with locals, using cell phones to take photographs and coordinates that illustrate this report.</p> Ismael Pérez Calderón Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 INTERACTION WITH THE DEAD IN CHANCAY CULTURE <p>e present the results of the stratigraphic and forensic study of funerary bundles and human remains of the Chancay culture, excavated in recent years in the Huaura valley. We focus on the identifi cation of the indicators of direct contact with the dead and his bundle. h e colonial documents inform about that such practice existed, and, at least in the highlands, bodies of the ancestors participated in fi estas and other religious ceremonies. Our results show that some of the bundles present evidence of the posthumous inte-raction to add new textiles. However, the bodies placed inside the bundles were fully articulated, which excludes the possibility that they were being removed. Nevertheless, we identifi ed some cases where the skull was absent. h is phenomenon could be the consequence of the ritual use of mummifi ed heads. For a better understanding of this data, we present a theoretic introduction, on the basis that we propose some interpretation of our results.</p> Łukasz Majchrzak, Pieter D. van Dalen Luna Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 ANDEAN PISHTACO AS A SYMBOLIZATION OF SOCIAL TRAUMA, ACCULTURATION AND CONFLICT (XVI-XXI C.) <p>Th e Andean pishtaco is one of the most intriguing and diffi cult to defi ne fi gures in the collective imagina-tion. It does not fi t into any of the categories of supernatural beings present in the beliefs of the Andean peoples. It exists within its own, autonomous category, genetically rooted in the historical reality of the fi rst decades of the conquistadors, as well as in the indigenous mythology. It is a conceptualization and visualization of a deep cultural trauma and its psychological resolution, which provides imaging for the new, unknown existential fears. Fear of the unknown establishes the emotion helplessness, while fear of a known enemy enables development of defense strategies. In Andean millenarian myths of the period aft er the Conquista the pishtaco came into existence as a symbolic fi gure of an enemy which would disap-pear only aft er the awaited revitalization of the idealized Incan empire. Pishtaco has neither one single face, or even one single appearance. During the last 500 years it appeared in the costumes of a monk, a cruel Spanish hacendado, a soldier, a doctor, or anyone perceived as a “stranger” by traditional campe-sinos. Th e oldest visualizations, documented as early as in the XVI c., are still alive today, interconnected with the ones created later. Even today the belief in the pishtaco remains surprisingly strong. It constitutes a proof for a perfect internal structure of this belief, allowing it to adapt to the new threats. Pishtaco at-tacks the Indians, kills them and melts their fat, however, it does not eat it (since it is not a variation of a vampire!), but transfers it to the White Men, who use it to harden the devices they produce. Th e oldest and most common oral lore tells about adding the Indian fat to the metal alloy used to create bells. Th e newer lore tells about using this fat to power vehicles, computers, or telephones. Th e logic of this belief is based on an extremely positive valorization of fat in the traditional Andean communities, that have seen it as a substance of life and vital powers, since the earliest times. Pishtaco kills Indians and takes away the-ir fat in order, and in this way their vital power serves the enemy. Th is belief contains universal symbolism and the metaphor of eternal confl ict between the dominated Andean peoples, and diff erent embodiments of their enemies. Pishtaco is a fi gure of fear of a threat to the physical existence, and of acculturation that leads to the destruction of the group identity. Ironically, it is also an integrating aspect for those, who believe in it, allowing to identify the enemy, and mobilizing to defense.</p> Mirosław Mąka†, Elżbieta Jodłowska Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 SAPSI - A REAL INSTITUTION THAT LEAVES NO TRACE <p>In the 16th century the words sapsi or zapsi in Quechua and hayma in Aymara signifi ed what was owned by a community: land and goods, and also work in common carried out on land and with common goods. Th e article based on interviews by Spanish o ffi cials and responses from indigenous administrators tries to list the uses of what is called sapsi, the organization of its administration and the way to negotiate neces-sary work and use of the product such as food, clothing or money.</p> Jan Szemiński Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 POLICY OF THE VENEZUELAN STATE TOWARDS THE AMAZON INDIGENOUS PEOPLES <p>In the article I present the policy of the independent Venezuelan state towards the indigenous peoples liv-ing in Venezuelan Amazon. I will pay special attention to educational policy. Th e article will present three proselytic, assimilatory and multicultural state policy models. In the former, the state tried to transform the indigenous peoples into Christians. In the second, the state tried to change the Indians into Mestizo and peasants. In the third, the state tried to transform the indigenous peoples into socialist citizens (los ciudadanos bolivarianos). In the text I try to show that Venezuela’s policy towards Amazon indigenous peoples was assimilating at all stages.</p> Tarzycjusz Buliński Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Defensive architecture of the Pueblo culture in the Mesa Verde region , Colorado, USA <p>For more than a hundred and twenty years, since the cliff dwellings were discovered in the canyons of Colo-rado, Utah, and Arizona there has been a debate on the topic of their function and the reasons they were left by the Ancestral Pueblo people. Th ese settlements fl ourished mostly in the 12th and 13th centuries A.D. and encompass sites located within canyons alcoves and shelters; the second “settlement model” included settle-ments on the edges/slopes of canyons, associated with stone towers and enclosing walls. In this paper, I focus on the research on Castle Rock Pueblo community, located in the central Mesa Verde region of southwestern Colorado. A result of this research that is conducted since 2011 by the Sand-Canyon Castle Rock Community Archaeological Project has been the precise reconstruction of the defensive settlement system. Th is research has also shown how such an organism of closely cooperating sites was able to eff ectively function in a worse-ning natural and social environment. Ethnohistorical sources from the Euro-American period and analogies to settlement systems in other parts of the world were also taken into consideration.</p> Radosław Palonka Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 BRIEF HISTORY OF THE TWO BEATERIOS OF SANTA ROSA DE LIMA IN CUSCO <p>Th e article is devoted to two beaterios of Santa Rosa, which existed in Cusco from the 1880s. Originally,<br>there was one recogimiento of the same dedication, which brought together both creole women (in this<br>case referred to as españolas [Spanish women]) and Indian and Mestizo ones. However, as a result of<br>a racial-social confl ict in the eighties, a division into two institutions, which from then on had their<br>separate headquarters. Th e beaterio of ‘Spanish women’ was in San Andres Street, while the one for the<br>Indians and Mestizos – in the nook at the Monastery of Santo Domingo. Th e article recreates the history<br>of both institutions based on accounts by José María Blanco from 1834 and several preserved documents<br>from the 18th century. It also discusses some random information on the decoration of the chapels and<br>their altars.</p> Ewa Kubiak Copyright (c) 2019 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Nuevos documentos y estudios en torno a la figura de Cristóbal Vaca de Castro <p>Introduction to special section.</p> <p><strong>Supplement data:</strong></p> <p><a class="obj_galley_link_supplementary pdf" href="">Research Material/ Material de Investigación: “Ejecutoria original del pleito seguido por el licenciado don Cristóbal Vaca de Castro, sobre los 21 capítulos que le puso el fi scal Villalobos, sobre la versación que tubo en el gobierno del Perú. Año 1545” (Español (España))&nbsp;</a></p> <div> <p><a class="obj_galley_link_supplementary pdf" href="">Research Material/ Material de Investigación: “Ejecutoria” - Índice onomástico (Español (España))</a></p> </div> <div> <p><a class="obj_galley_link_supplementary pdf" href="">Research Material/ Material de Investigación: “Ejecutoria" - Índice de los documentos incluidos en la Ejecutoria (Español (España))</a></p> </div> Mariusz Ziółkowski, María Luisa García Valverde, Hélène Roy Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 04 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 An Unpublished Letter of Cristóbal Vaca de Castro <p>The article attempts to contribute to the knowledge of the process of construction of colonial Peruvian society and of the period ofCristóbal Vaca de Castro’s government by bringing to the public’s attention anunpublished letter written by the governor in Jauja, dated August 18, 1542, a few weeks before the battle of Chupas.</p> Loann Berens Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 04 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 The Legal Written Documents Of The Vaca De Castro’s Archives In Sacromonte. Behind The Scenes Of The Spanish Metropolitan Power In The 16th Century <p>The purpose of this work is to off er a critic analysis of some legal written documents kept in the Sacrom-onte Archives, in particular the writ of execution of a trial against an o ffi cial of the Spanish Monarchy in Peru, Cristóbal Vaca de Castro. Th e strategies deployed by both parties in this case reveal several dynam-ics of power: faced by a representative which exercise of his jurisdiction in the Spanish Indies made him a threat for the –economic as well as political– interests of the Crown, the latter deploys an implacable but not unfailing legal arsenal. Th us the example off ered by this documentation reaffi rms a relatively recent postulate in the Spanish-American History, that is to govern from the metropolis, or “to overcome the distance”, was unthinkable without resorting to justice.</p> Hélène Roy Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 04 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100